Emergency first responders, such as police officers, firefighters, and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel, must be able to communicate with each other to provide effective disaster response. However, a lack of interoperable communications systems and technologies has plagued emergency first responders for generations. There is no standard definition of interoperable communications, but public safety officials generally recognize interoperable communications as the ability to talk with whom they want, when they want, and when authorized, but not the ability to talk with everyone all of the time. During the responses to the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995, the attacks on the World Trade Center towers in New York on September 11, 2001, and numerous other incidents, police officers were unable to communicate directly with other first responders from their own or other jurisdictions. Unfortunately, there is no quick or easy solution to this problem. The federal government has tried, with limited success, to help state and local governments enhance communications systems and technology. In addition, there are significant political, financial, technological, bureaucratic, legal, practical, and operational challenges to achieving interoperable communications. It is, therefore, important to be aware of these challenges and how to address them to achieve interoperable communications among government agencies.
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The assignment: (1–2 pages)
Support your Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. You are asked to provide a reference list only for those resources not included in the Learning Resources for this course.
Bullock, J. A. , Haddow, G. D. & Coppola, D. P. (2013). Introduction to homeland security (5th ed.). Waltham, MA: Elsevier Inc.
· Chapter 11, “Communications”
United States Government Accountability Office. (2007). First responders: Much work remains to improve communications interoperability. Retrieved fromhttp://www.gao.gov/new.items/d07301.pdf
Note: You are only required to read pages 1–1 1 of this article.
NGA Center for Best Practices. (2007). A governor’s guide to homeland security. Retrieved fromhttp://www.nga.org/files/live/sites/NGA/files/pdf/0703GOVGUIDEHS.PDFChapter 3, “Developing a Public Communications and Media Strategy”