Order Literary Analysis Paper
A Longer Literary Analysis Paper on Aidoo’s Changes (1991)
Length: 5 full pages and a Works Cited page on page 6. Please use a 12-point Times New Roman font in double space.
*Note: Using a scholarly source (literary articles) is required for this longer literary analysis paper.
Please use at least 1 scholarly source (either Aidoo’s essay, “Ghana: To Be a Woman” or Tuzyline Allan’s article “Afterword” on Changes) we’ve used in our class discussions.
DUE: The final copy of the paper on Aidoo’s Changes (150 points) is due on Thursday, April 27, 11:59 pm
*Penalty for late submissions: one day late (10 points off); two days late (20 points off)
Draft/paper outline posting for feedback
Tuesday, April 25, 11:59 pm – Post the Introduction (or outline) of your paper for feedback (this is not a graded assignment; not mandatory)
Coming up with an interesting research question is important to formulate a strong thesis. Think about some research/issue questions in the novel. Some examples of issue/research questions are as follows:
Examples of the Paper Topic (Please feel free to combine these questions as you like and come up with a clear thesis).
1. In what sense does the novel convey the idea of changes in Ghanaian society? What has changed in modern Ghanaian society? Despite that some Ghanaian women have received an education, the older women are shocked to realize “how little had changed for their daughters — school and all!” (107). What has not changed for women in modern Ghanaian society? What obstacles do educated female characters, Esi, Opokuya, and Fusena, face in Ghanaian society? What constrains the lives of educated career women in Ghanaian society? What does Aidoo try to convey through the title, Changes?
2. What oppresses women in Ghanaian society? What restricts Esi in her marriage with Oko? What oppresses Opokuya in her marriage with Kubi? What silences Fusena’s voice in her marriage with Ali? Why does Esi decide to remain in her unhappy polygamous marriage with Ali, and what does her decision signify? What does Esi’s dilemma symbolize/signify in the novel?
3. Does the novel show any concerns or issues about women in Ghanaian society? Do Esi, Opokuya, and Fusena (Ghanaian women) have a choice in marriage and their life? Does marriage as an institution oppress women in Ghanaian society? (*The ideas in question #3 can be combined with questions 2 and 3 above.)
*Since this is a longer literary analysis paper, please expand each body paragraph by adding more textual examples and your analysis.
The structure of body paragraphs (Choose either option 1 or Option 2)
Option 1. Each body paragraph can be about a page (about 23 lines, three long body paragraphs).
Option 2. You can have two short paragraphs per point (12-15 lines per paragraph). Then, the introduction, 6 body paragraphs, and the conclusion (a total of 8 paragraphs). It is up to you how you structure body paragraphs. Be sure to be consistent in the structure and the length of your body paragraphs (in other words, you should not make two paragraphs for Point 1 and one paragraph for Points 2 and 3).
· Please put a title of your paper that reflects your thesis.
· Italicize the novel title – It is an MLA style.
· Your thesis should be clear and specific, and it should be put in the introduction. *Note: Do not list three female characters as your thesis. Your thesis should be your analytical points based on your analysis of the novel, and you should use characters as textual examples to prove your points in body paragraphs.
· Make sure that each paragraph begins with a topic/summary sentence that refers to one of the main points of your thesis. In other words, you should not begin the paragraph with “When. . . .” Your paper should not be a plot summary.
· Please try to avoid using “You” or “we” in the analysis paper.
· Use a signal phrase when you introduce a quotation. (i.e. Esi says, “. . . ” (89) and put the page number of the quote in parentheses. Do not put p. or pg within the parentheses.
· Please cite at least two or three textual examples (direct quotations that prove and support your analytical points) in each body paragraph to support your thesis, and add your detailed analysis after quotations.
· Limit quotations to a maximum of 3 lines and use an ellipsis (…) for any omitted parts. Pick the most important and relevant passages for quotations.
The Structure of the Longer Literary Analysis Paper
Introduction – One paragraph in this paper (about 10 -15 lines)
– Introduce the literary work with a brief summation of your interpretation of the text (an interesting opening sentence).
– Provide a brief plot summary (about 3-4 lines) and connect it to your main points.
– Your thesis (three analytical points) should be put at the end of your introduction.
*Note: Your analysis paper should NOT be focused on HOW the character acted. Then, you are just describing the character, and this kind of paper tends to be a plot summary.
Instead, you should focus on WHY (e.g. WHY the character acted the way he/she did and what his/her action signifies.)
(Thesis example) Although Aidoo shows some changes in modern Ghanaian society, the novel highlights the dilemmas and obstacles many educated women face in the society, because of (point 1) the male-centered view of marriage in patriarchal Ghanaian culture, (point 2) _____________, and (point 3)_________________.
– Begin a body paragraph with a clear topic sentence that refers to each point in the thesis (your analytical point, not about the plot)
– Be sure to provide a textual example (direct quotes) to support your point and put your interpretation and analysis of the quote. *Do not choose plot-related information as a quote.
– Please choose another effective quote to prove your point and provide your detailed analysis of the quote that supports your main point.
– Try to paraphrase your main point and end each body paragraph with your restatement of the main point.
Example of a Topic Sentence and Incorporation of scholarly sources
(Thesis example) Although Aidoo shows some changes in modern Ghanaian society, the novel highlights the dilemmas and obstacles many educated women face in Ghanaian society, because of (point 1) the male-centered view of marriage in a patriarchal culture, (point 2) _____________, and (point 3)_________________.
Example of a topic sentence that refers to point 1 (in the second paragraph) Aidoo highlights the issue of marriage as a major challenge to professional women in Ghanaian society due to its dominant patriarchal culture. (Integration of a scholarly source into your paper) As Aidoo writes in her essay, “Ghana: To Be a Woman,” marriage in Ghanaian society is viewed as “. . . .” (263).
Conclusion (about 10 -12 lines)
– Recap your main analytical points (*Do not use the same sentences you used in your thesis), using different words and sentence structures.
– State the significance of your thesis. (e.g. Whether Aidoo is sympathetic towards Esi or Esi’s situation stuck in an unhappy polygamous marriage; whether women in Ghanaian society have no alternatives outside marriage or hope for changes).
– Please do not cite or include a quote in the conclusion.
– Refer back to the title of your paper and give a sense of completion of your idea/analysis at the end of your paper.
*Please list the sources in alphabetical order by the author’s last name.
Aidoo, Ama Ata. Changes: A Love Story. Feminist Press, 1991.
– – – . “Ghana: To Be a Woman.” Sisterhood Is Global, edited by Robin Morgan.
Anchor Doubleday, 1985, pp. 258-65.
Allan, Tuzyline Jita. “Afterword.” Changes: A Love Story. Ama Ata Aidoo. The
Feminist Press, 1991, pp. 171-96.