Shortest short answer (3 points): Complete sentences not needed.
Reminder: All definitions should be in your own words (not copied word for word from slides). For all questions that ask for an example, develop your own original example rather than pulling examples from the class slides or textbook (except in the few cases where the question prompt notes that you can look for an example online). For questions that ask for definitions and examples, the definition is worth 1 point and your own original example is worth 2 points.
1. What is a confounding variable? Provide your own example.
2. What is inter-rater reliability? Provide your own example.
3. What is empiricism? Do all psychologists believe in empiricism? Support your answer.
4. What is systems thinking and why is it important?
5. What is the replication crisis? Provide an example of a psychological finding that has not replicated well.
6. What is the difference between a theory and a hypothesis? Provide an example of each.
7. What is parsimony? Provide an example of an interpretation that is NOT parsimonious. You can pick something from the news or develop your own example. Explain why you think the example you provide is NOT parsimonious.
8. What is open science? Include a specific open science technique in your definition. Why does open science matter?
9. Define criterion and discriminant validity and provide your own example of how you could establish the criterion and discriminant validity of a measure of your choosing. You can use an existing measure or propose your own measure. Specify what construct you are assessing with your measure and how you will establish its criterion and discriminant validity.
10. Provide your own example of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods research.
11. Define converging operations and provide your own example.
12. Define basic and applied research and provide your own example of each.
Longer short answer (5 points each): Complete sentences not needed.
Reminder: For all questions that ask for an example, develop your own example rather than pulling examples from the class slides.
13. What is a correlation? Select an example from this link that indicates why “correlation does not imply causation.” http://jfmueller.faculty.noctrl.edu/100/correlation_or_causation.htm. Provide support for your interpretation.
14. Provide the name for and your own example of each of the 4 levels/scales of measurement.
15. Provide a strength and a weakness of relying on each of the 5 methods of acquiring knowledge described in the textbook (and course slides).
16. What are the three goals of science described in the textbook? Provide your own examples of a study you could do to address each goal.
17. Define construct validity. Provide your own example of a way of measuring a construct that has high construct validity and a way of measuring the same construct that has low construct validity. Provide support for your determination that each measure has high or low construct validity.
18. What is testability and why is it important? Provide an example of a testable hypothesis and indicate which findings would support or falsify your hypothesis. This hypothesis should be distinct from the example in your upcoming essay.
Essay Question (10 points).
This should be written in full sentences with an introduction and conclusion.
Develop your own idea for an experiment that you could do if you had unlimited resources. This experiment should be different than experiments we have discussed in class. Include an operational definition of your independent variable (IV) and dependent variable (DV). Include the scale of measurement of the DV. State what your hypothesis is. Indicate what evidence would support your hypothesis and what evidence would contradict your hypothesis.
Extra Credit (2 points each)
1. What is authoritarianism? Why is authoritarianism particularly relevant right now?
2. Provide your own example of something you would like to study with a case study. Pretend that you have unlimited resources to do your case study. Your example should be distinct from prior case studies you have learned about. Explain why a case study would be an appropriate way to study whatever you propose to study.