Research Proposal: Guidelines and Rubric
Research Proposal (10%) – Due Week Six
The ENG 204 research proposal presents the students’ current thinking on their topic. It reflects the work already done and also projects the direction that the paper will take in terms of the thesis, the sources and the outline.
This section contains the followingintegrated components:
Discussion of Source Material
This section presents the scholarly context of the topic and includes the following:
Score for each element is based on both completeness and quality of the thinking and writing.
|Discussion of topic and problemand why it should matter to others|
|Working thesis/research question(s)|
|Definitions of key terms and ideas (citing the sources used)|
|Discussion of Source Material||/ 50|
|A thorough critical analysis of 6-8 scholarly and credible sources. This should include a short summary and critical evaluation of each source in relation to the topic (using APA citation)|
|An outline of the proposed organization of the research paper|
|A list of the sources cited in the proposal and those you plan to use for your paper, using APA formatting|
Part 1: Introduction
This sectionis a general overview of the paper. Although the number of paragraphs may vary, the four-paragraph approach is often successful. These four paragraphs are as follows:
1) The thesis and a brief introduction to the topic, including definitions if appropriate
2) A brief introduction to the supporting arguments
3) An (often) briefer introduction to the counter arguments and an example of a refutation
4) The importance of the topic to its audience.
A fifth paragraph that describes the concluding remarks is also an option. Whichever approach you take, be sure to include the following elements:
Key phrases that canbe included
Part 2: Discussion of Source Material
Review of High Quality Scholarly Articles
Themain section of this part of the proposal presents the scholarly context of the topic. Specifically, the section should include a fullreview of at leastfivehigh quality scholarly sources, with each review containing four identifiable parts (see below). Although each review has four parts, it should be written as one paragraph and will contain no less thanseven sentences. Use the questions below as a guide to writing the reviews.
Part 1 (one to two sentences).
Part 2(three to four sentences).
Part 3(two to three sentences).
Part 4(two to three sentences).
Review of Other Sources
In addition to the high quality sources, you need to add a further list and explanation of other resources you will be using. This list (making a total of six to eight overall sources) may be books, chapters, youtube videos, webpages, Wikipedia entries, or any other lower quality source. For each entry, you are required to reference the source (in full), and then add an explanation as to what the resource is, and why the resource is necessary in your paper (minimum of five sentences each).
Part 3: Outline
This is a working outline for your research paper. As such, the outline you propose here will probably be different from your final paper. Despite the differences, the outline should guide you as you begin drafting your paper.
You are required to create your outline in bullets (examples provided below). The bullets (and subsequent indented bullets) represent the sections of the paper. The biggest problem most students have with the outline is whether to write supporting arguments first or counter arguments first. As most students are writing in support of some position, they feel that supporting arguments should go first; however, that is often not the best option. That is, if you’re arguing against a common perception then it is often (but not always) better to first show what that perception is, and then show why that perception may be wrong. For example, if your thesis is “Smoking has health benefits” then most people, presumably, would not readily agree with you. As such, you would be advised to start by acknowledging all the reasons why people thought the opposite to be true. Only then, in the second half of the body of the paper, would you turn to the supporting arguments for your thesis.
Part 4: References
The reference section should contain a list of the sources that you plan to use for your paper. It should also include all the sources you used in the proposal. The references section needs to be in APA format.
Examplesand Exercises forthe Research Proposal
Part 1: Introduction
For each of the three introduction examples below, write one paragraph explaining its good features and one paragraph explaining its weak features.
Introduction Example 1.
In this paper, I argue that the administration of immunizing vaccinations is beneficial to communities. Vaccinations prevent numerous diseases such as polio, diphtheria, and rubella. Vaccinations are made by injecting patients with weakened elements of the target disease. The body fights off these weakened elements, and in doing so, the body is then able to build an immunity to the full disease (“Childhood Vaccines,” n.d.).
I support my position on immunizing vaccinations with the following three arguments. First, I argue that the administration of immunizing vaccinations enhances the quality of public health within communities. Immunizing vaccinations defend the human body against preventable diseases and limit the spread of diseases. Second, I argue that immunizing vaccinations reduce the economic costs associated with contracting preventable diseases. Immunizing vaccinations reduce both tangible and intangible costs that are incurred following contraction of a preventable disease. Finally, I argue that immunizing vaccinations make significant contributions to future generations. Immunizing vaccinations eliminate preventable diseases and enhance the health of newborns.
I also consider alternative positions towards immunizing vaccinations. These positions include the link between immunizing vaccinations and autism as well as the safety concerns regarding the use of immunizing vaccinations. In the paper, I refute such claims by, for example, showing that the alleged link between vaccinations and autism was mistaken and has subsequently been rejected by the medical community.
This paper is important because it clarifies the doubts surrounding the use of immunizing vaccinations, highlights the benefits they bring to children and adults, and allows communities to make informed decisions. I conclude my paper by suggesting the creation of intensive awareness campaigns to combat the misconceptions surrounding the topic as well as significant action from legislative powers.
Introduction Example 2.
In an age where seemingly everyone and everything is connected digitally, threats of illegal acts are becoming more noticeable to the public. Governments should not stand idle while their citizens are in potential danger. As such, in this paper, I argue that governments and third party organizations should have limited rights to monitor people physically and virtually.
My paper begins with a debate on whether Edward Snowden, a former NSA agent, is a hero or a traitor to his country. The Edward Snowden scandal is what recently sparked the privacy versus security debate.
Following this debate, I support my position with the following three arguments. First, I argue why cybercrime is one of the main reasons governments should increase surveillance and cybersecurity. It is important because personal information is being shared online every day. Second, I argue how surveillance could have prevented terrorist attacks. Surveillance programs could have stopped large terrorist attacks such as the Boston Marathon bombings, the Paris attacks, and the 9/11 attack. Furthermore, the U.S. government’s extensive surveillance programs have also disrupted more than 50 terrorist plans in the United States and abroad. Finally, I argue how social media is being used as a platform for terrorism. For example, extremists can use social media to spread content that may influence the way people think.
I also consider alternative positions such as the negative effects of surveillance programs. For example, mass surveillance collides with the concept of democracy. I conclude my paper by emphasizing the importance of maintaining a balance between the right to privacy and the right to security.
Introduction Example 3.
Multiculturalism is the presence of distinct cultures within a society (Pandian, Baboo, &Mahfoodh, 2016). In this paper, I argue that multiculturalism is beneficial for society and the development of adolescents.
I support my position with the following three arguments: multiculturalism improves students’ skills, reduces racism, and positively affects economic growth.
On the other hand, I also consider alternative positions such as multiculturalism can lead to isolation within the community and language extinction. In addition to these issues, multiculturalism can lead to cultural diminishing and loss of cultural identity. While these issues have merit, I show that they may be unfounded. For example, those who argue that multiculturalism can isolate society members may not be aware of the possible ways of combatting the isolation issue before it even happens. This paper is important because multiculturalism allows society members to exchange behaviors and ideas, which leads to the development of the society as a whole and its members. I conclude my paper by recommending readers to start accepting diversity as it affects the societies and economic growth.
Part 2: Discussion of sources
For any two of the discussions examples below, write one paragraph explaining its good features and one paragraph explaining its weak features.
Discussion of sources: Example 1.
Haertlein, L. (2012). Immunizing against Bad science: the vaccine court and the autism test cases. Law and Contemporary Problems, 75(2), 211-232. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.aus.idm.oclc.org/stable/23216763
Haertlein (2012) is a peer reviewed article published in Law and Contemporary Problems, which is a peer-reviewed journal published by the Duke University School of Law. The article discusses six federal cases about the relationship between immunizing vaccines and autism that occurred in 2010. Haertlein (2012) explains that all six cases were lost as the plaintiffs failed to provide a viable theory or sufficient evidence to support their claims. This source will be of use to me when I am refuting one of my counter arguments. The counter argument in question is that immunizing vaccines cause autism.
Discussion of sources: Example 2.
West, A. R., & Kopp, M. (1999). Making a difference: Immunizing infants and children. American Nurse, 31(1). Retrieved from http://aus.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.aus.idm.oclc.org/docview/205528943?accountid=16946
The article (West, Kopp, 2019) is published in the American Nurse journal, which is a reputable peer-reviewed journal in the field of medicine and nursing. The article discusses the history of immunizing vaccinations and the difficulties or barriers faced by people aiming to be vaccinated. The article also discusses an example of governmental support towards the mass administration of immunizing vaccinations in the United States. This article will help me provide an example of how the mass administration of immunizing vaccinations can be carried out and elaborate it on how it can be improved.
Offit, P.A. (2010). Autism’s False Prophets: Bad science, risky medicine and the search for a cure. New York, NY: Columbia University Press (2010). Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7312/offi14636.5?refreqid=excelsior%3A7ff52b9d9e9db0351262cbe3a41c227f&seq=2#metadata_info_tab_contents
Offit (2010) is written by a pediatrician, specializing in infectious diseases and viruses. Offit has published over ten books in his field and won two awards for his efforts in the field of viruses and immunization. Furthermore, this book is published by Columbia University Press, a reputable and reliable publisher and research institute. This book is of use to me as it covers the rise of the misconception that vaccines cause autism, which is one of the counter arguments I will be refuting. The book also contains valuable information and examples of dishonorable research trying to link vaccines to autism.
Discussion of sources: Example 3.
Schafer is Canadian bio-ethicist at the University of Manitoba. The article answers the question of whether or not the ethical and moral laws are sufficient to ban PAS. This article discusses the laws that exist against PAS (physician-assisted suicide) and the reasons for their existence. Schafer focuses on one case of in Canada of Lee Carter vs. Attorney General of Canada. He discusses and analyzes all moral and legal the arguments in this case and reaches the conclusion. He concludes that the legal and moral arguments against PAS are not enough to ban it. I did not like that the article focused on one Canadian case, analyzed it, and concluded that PAS should be legal based on one case. This controversial topic needs to be analyzed thoroughly by including many different cases, and viewing one only can be considered to be biased.
Discussion of sources: Example 4.
Bearman, P. (2010). Just-so stories: Vaccines, autism and the single-bullet disorder. Social Psychology Quarterly, 73(2), 112-115. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/25677391
Bearman (2010) is an article in the Social Psychology Quarterly published by the American Sociology Association. The author of the article, Peter Bearman, is a social sciences professor at Columbia University and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Science as well as the National Academy of Science. This article is of assistance to me as it explains why people tend to follow certain misconceptions, specifically, the misconceptions regarding vaccinations. I intend to use this article to refute the counter argument that is vaccines harm children’s health.
Discussion of sources: Example 5.
Hewitson, L., Curtis, B., Yutuc, V., Ferrier, C., Marti, N., Sackett, G. (2015). Social behavior in non-human primate infants and juveniles following administration of thimerosal-containing vaccines. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 49. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2015.04.144
The authors of the article (Hewitson, Curtis, Yutuc, Marti, Sackett, 2015) are all university professors and Washington National Primate Research Center researchers respectively. The authors carried out a statistical analysis to identify the side effects, if any, of thimerosal-containing vaccines of rhesus macaques. Rhesus macaques have an almost identical DNA to humans. The authors present the methods used in their studies and provide the results. The article contains supporting evidence denying any significant relationship between thimerosal containing vaccines and autism. This evidence will help me refute the counter argument that vaccines cause autism.
Part 3: Outline
For any two of the outline examples below, write one paragraph explaining its good features and one paragraph explaining its weak features.
Outline: Example 1.
Outline: Example 2.
Outline: Example 3.
Argument 1: High rates in obesity
Argument 2: High blood pressure
Argument 3: Depression
Argument 4: Oral Health
Part 4: References
All references used in the paper (including those in the introduction and those in the discussion of sources) should be listed in the reference section. Use APA formatting for all entries.
Arredondo, E., Castaneda, D., Elder, J., Slymen, D. & Dozier, D. (2009). Brand name logo recognition of fast food and healthy food among children. Journal of Community Health, 34, 13-28.
Bearman, P. (2010). Just-so stories: Vaccines, autism and the single-bullet disorder. Social Psychology Quarterly,73(2), 112-115. https://www.jstor.org/stable/25677391
Chou, S., Rashad, I., & Grossman, M. (2008). Fast‐Food restaurant advertising on television and its influence on childhood obesity. The Journal of Law & Economics,51(4), 599-618.
Folkvord, F., Anschütz, D.J., &Buijzen, M. (2016). The association between BMI development among young children and (un)healthy food choices in response to food advertisements: a longitudinal study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition & Physical Activity, 13, 1–7.
Haertlein, L. (2012). Immunizing against bad science: The vaccine court and the autism test cases. Law and Contemporary Problems, 75(2), 211-232. http://www.jstor.org.aus.idm.oclc.org/stable/23216763
Explain the six problems with the references below.
Henman, A.R. (1999). Economic Aspects of Vaccines and Immunizations. Comptes rendus de l’Academie des sciences. Serie III, Sciences de la vie, 322, 989-994.
Henderson, V.R., and Kelly, B. (2005). Food advertising in the age of obesity: Content analysis of food advertising on general market and African American television. Journal of Nutrition Education & Behavior, 37, 191-196.
Quin, S.C., Jamison, A.M., An, J., Hancock, G.R., Freimuth, V.S., (2019). Measuring vaccine hesitancy, confidence, trust and flu vaccine uptake: Results of a national survey of white and African American adults. Vaccine, 37, 298-324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.01.033
West, A.R., &Kopp, M. (1999). Making a difference: Immunizing infants and children. American Nurse, 31. 23-34.
McCarthy, P.M., & Jarvis, S. (2007). A theoretical and empirical evaluation of vocd. Language Testing,24.
Roxing, C. M&Mayland, Y. U. (2012). Coffee: The hydration method and why it works. Journal ofHealth Care, 22, 24-32. https://doi.org/11.768/phc.2012.e1467